Around 1900 Max Weber outlined his “scientific” method to law, identifying the “legal rational type” as a kind of domination, not attributable to private authority but to the authority of abstract norms. Formal legal rationality was his term for the vital thing characteristic of the sort of coherent and calculable law that was a precondition for contemporary political developments and the modern bureaucratic state. Weber saw this law as having developed in parallel with the growth of capitalism. Other notable early authorized sociologists included Hugo Sinzheimer, Theodor Geiger, Georges Gurvitch and Leon Petrażycki in Europe, and William Graham Sumner in the united states Modern military, policing and bureaucratic power over odd citizens’ daily lives pose particular problems for accountability that earlier writers similar to Locke or Montesquieu couldn’t have foreseen.
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